Bonsai Lamtoro Terbaik

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Bonsai Lamtoro Terbaik – Where does the vanilla flavor come from – Vanilla is a flavor enhancer produced from the vanilla plant, specifically vanilla planifolia. The word “vanilla” comes from the Spanish word, vanyaa which means “pod”, because the form of vanilla pod is pod.

Hernan Cortes brought vanilla along with chocolate to Europe after his visit to America. Vanilla from the people of Mesoamerica is one of the main spices in chocolate drinks.

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At first trying to cultivate vanilla was difficult because it required Melipona honey which is only found in Central America. A Belgian botanist first discovered this and tried to find a way to pollinate artificial vanilla, but his attempts were unsuccessful.

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A slave on Reunion Island, Edmond Albius, discovered a simple method of artificial pollination in 1841, and led to the widespread cultivation of vanilla.

The vanilla plant itself entered Indonesia since 1918 by a Dutch botanist named Marchal and was first planted in the Bogor Botanical Gardens.

Today there are three main types of vanilla and they are all plants that were brought from Central America. Vanilla Planifolia is grown in Madagascar, La Réunion and other tropical areas around the Indian Ocean, Vanilla Tahitensis is grown in the South Pacific and vanilla Pompona is grown in the West Indian Ocean, Central America and Latin America. Planifolia is the most popular plant in the world.

Planifolia vanilla produces the most vanilla compared to the two types. Vanilla is one of the most important and expensive spices in the world after saffron and cardamom because vanilla takes a lot of effort to get.

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In South America, the plant Leptotes bicolor is used as a substitute for vanilla. Vanilla pods are widely used in spices as well as in fragrances.

This plant is widely used in the food industry (60%), cosmetics (33%), and as an aromatherapy ingredient (7%). Traditionally, vanilla is used to treat many ailments such as dysmenorrhea, fever, hysteria, dyspepsia, prevention of dental caries, treatment of toothache, cough and colic.

This plant is known to have antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Check out the explanation of the origin of the vanilla flavor below!

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Vanilla extract contains hundreds of components, including vanillic acid, anisaldehyde, hydroxybenzoic acid, anisic acid, amyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, furfural, hexanoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, eugenol, methyl cinnamic, isobutyric acid, caproic acid, vitipirane. , phenol ethers, carboxylic acids, esters, benzyl ethers, lactones, carbohydrates, fats and salts, minerals.

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But it does give vanilla its characteristic vanillin aroma. Another minor component that also affects taste is piperonal.

The main compound, vanillin, can be prepared from phenol and dissolved in ethanol. Vanillin itself is the most active component of vanilla pods and makes up about 85% of the total solids in vanilla pods.

This compound is the compound most commonly used as a flavor enhancer in ice cream, soft drinks, cosmetics and perfumes. Although vanillin can be blended, consumers still prefer natural vanillin due to its safety, reliability and being considered preservative-free.

Vanillin compounds are reported to have anticlastogenic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic activities and can reduce the risk of chromosome damage by X-ray and UV analysis. Vanillin works by inhibiting the destruction of red blood cells in people with anemia. In addition, vanillin is an aphrodisiac, antioxidant and antimicrobial.

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Vanillin can be extracted from the pods by percolation or oleoresin. The percolation method was carried out by treating ethanol/water with a concentration of 35-50-65-50 (v/v) under vacuum for 48-72 hours.

The oleoresin process was carried out by crushing the pods and surrounding them with ethanol at 45°C in a vacuum for 8-9 days. The alcohol is then removed.

The antioxidant properties of vanillin were tested by various methods such as the oxygen radical absorption capacity test (ORAC) and the oxidative hemolysis inhibition test (OxH-LIA) and were found to be stronger than ascorbic acid (vitamin C). property. and Trolox.

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Vanillin is said to inhibit the growth of gram positive and negative bacteria, yeast and moulds. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, zygosaccharomyces baili, zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Debaryomyces hansenii was observed to be inhibited in apple cider medium containing 2000 PPM vanillin after incubation for 40 days at 27°C.

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Vanillin can be made chemically, by converting the phenol guaiacol obtained from oil and from lignin, waste paper and the pulp industry. However, the aroma and characteristics of vanillin will not be exactly the same as that of vanilla extract because vanillin, although abundant, is one of the 171 aromatic compounds present in vanilla pods.

In the past, vanillin was produced synthetically from eugenol, but its price has gradually increased due to the increasing demand for eugenol and its ingredients. Leptotes bicolor flowers are used as a substitute for vanilla in Paraguay and Brazil.

In the United States, castoreum, which is the exudate of adult otters, is classified as a food additive by the FDA because it smells like vanilla and berries.

In addition to the analytical study of the compounds contained in vanilla fruit, the Metabolomics method was also used to obtain complete, accurate and complete metabolite data.

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Vanilla pods were analyzed using H-NMR and LCMS and multivariate analysis was performed. Vanilla pods from six different years were analyzed by NMR to determine the classes of phenolic metabolites, carbohydrates and organic acids. The results showed that there were differences in the aromatic composition of each pod age.

The content of vanillin compounds was found to increase over time. In addition, it was observed the presence of homocitric acid which is not common in plants because the presence of this compound includes the process of lysine biosynthesis in its activity.

A possible explanation is that the vanilla plant is associated with mycorrhizal fungi. PCA and PLS-DA analysis showed that the young pods contained higher levels of glucose, malic acid, homocitric acid and glucose, while the old pods contained sucrose, glukovaniline, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde glucoside and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde.

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LC MS is more targeted at phenolic compounds. The results showed that the vanillin compounds found were aglycones and glucosides in small amounts. P-hydroxybenzyl alcohol is only found after hydrolysis of B-glucosidase which occurs in young pods.

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Several studies have shown that glucovanillin, P-hydroxybenzyl alcohol glucoside and glycosides A and B are the main phenolic compounds found in young vanilla.

Metabolomics analysis results can be used as a basis for classification of vanillin biosynthetic pathways in young pods and can be used as a reference for quality control of vanilla pods. Further research that needs to be developed is the enzyme that plays a role in the vanillin biosynthetic pathway.

Like most other orchids, vanilla grows by demanding other plants as a means of plant production or protection from direct sunlight. Vanilla grows best in about 50-60% shade.

These cover crops must be fast growing, easy to cut, resistant to leaf fall, insect resistant and have deep roots like lamtoro or dadap plants. In Réunion, these plants are maintained together with forest maintenance (agroforestry).

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In fact, vanilla can pollinate itself or help bees and hummingbirds. However, this pollination is difficult because of the size of the vanilla powder, so people often pollinate it and it is very difficult.

This plant blooms for one day, so farm workers have to check daily for artificial pollination. In addition, harvesting and packing are still done by humans, so it is very inefficient. This is why growing vanilla is hard work.

Vanilla can grow at an altitude of 0-1500 masl. In its area of ​​origin, vanilla grows in tropical forests with rainfall of around 1500-3000 mm/year with temperatures around 15-30°C and high humidity. .

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Rainfall and temperature determine the growth of vanilla. Vanilla should be planted in areas with wet months for 7-8 months a year with dry months for about 2-3 months a year. Vanilla will die if 4 consecutive dry months of the year are without water.

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The soil for planting vanilla must be very fertile with lots of nutrients and water that must not be saturated. In clay soil it is necessary to add sand to reduce excess moisture.

It is possible to add organic and inorganic fertilizers to make it fertile, make the soil happy and keep the soil moist.

The fruit is in the form of a long capsule which, when ripe, opens at the end, dries up and emits a characteristic odor.

The seeds of this plant will not germinate without the activity of mycorrhizal orchids. So that farmers do not reproduce through seeds but through cuttings.

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Vanilla is propagated by cuttings and tissue culture. The soil required for cutting generally varies, but what is needed is at least a 50% reduction in sunlight for cutting and sufficient distance between plants.

Propagation in tissue culture was first performed at the University of Tamil Nadu, India. This propagation is done by extracting cells from extra buds of the vanilla plant.

In vitro propagation was also carried out using callus culture, protocorm, stem mode and root tips. Individuals obtained from tissue culture are grown in the laboratory to a height of 30 cm before becoming seeds for planting in the field or greenhouse.

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Vanilla beans ripen about six months after being harvested. Harvesting must be done carefully. The sign that the fruit is starting to ripen is the tip of the vanilla fruit which is starting to turn pale yellow and each fruit has a different ripening time.

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A five year old vanilla tree can produce 1.5 to 3 kilograms of fruit per year and grows to a maximum of 6 kilograms.

If the fruit has been harvested while it is still green, it can still be sold or ripened earlier for a better price. Vanilla beans involve bleeding, fermenting, drying and mapping.

Training was conducted to kill plant fat in fruit to prevent vanilla seeds from growing on fruit during processing and storage.

The methods used vary from cooling to heating in hot or boiling water, as well as in an oven or sunlight.

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The method used determines the final product from the vanilla bean. Drying is done to kill the vegetative cells of the fruit

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